Streetwise Professor

November 15, 2023

Gary Gensler: From Igor to Frankenstein

Filed under: Clearing,Derivatives,Economics,Exchanges,Politics,Regulation — cpirrong @ 4:53 pm

Gary Gensler has been a menace to the market system for as long as he has been in government. Those of you who have followed this blog for a long time know that I relentlessly criticized him during his tenure as CFTC chairman. He apparently took notice, because he banned me from the CFTC building. I also consider it extremely likely that he was the moving force behind the 2013 NYT supposed hit piece on me–for which I should probably thank him, because on net that has turned out to be a major positive.

Gary Gensler. (Though this is how I like to think of him.)

At CFTC, Gensler was merely an Igor implementing the Frankendodd creation of his congressional masters. As head of the SEC, however, Gensler has become a full-fledged Dr. Frankenstein, stitching together regulatory monsters that threaten to stalk the landscape leaving economic devastation in their path.

I have already written several times about the SEC’s misguided Treasury clearing mandate. But that is only one of Gensler’s Monsters. There are many others.

Perhaps the most monstrous is the SEC’s proposed rule on climate-related disclosures. This would mandate that public companies disclose their carbon emissions–and those of their suppliers. This is at best vast speculative endeavor, and and worst an impossibility. It’s main concrete effect will be to provide a pretext for lawsuits against companies targeted by activists who will allege that the companies’ calculations were wrong, or were lies because alternative internal calculations came up with numbers that differed from those reported in their 10Ks.

The regulation would also require companies to make fulsome disclosures of their climate risks. Another speculative endeavor that cannot produce any meaningful or useful information. It requires each company to characterize the interaction between one complex system–climate–and another complex system–the economy–to predict the adverse consequences of this interaction for it, a small part of the economic system allegedly impacted by climate. Prognostications about climate are themselves wildly uncertain–indeed, arguably the biggest risk is model risk. Predicting how climate will impact economic outcomes at the company level under myriad possible climate scenarios is a mug’s game.

And indeed, it is even worse than that. For there is another element to the problem–government policy. This introduces an element of reflexivity that is particularly devilish. Government policy will respond to climate and economic outcomes as well as interest group pressure, and will affect economic outcomes (though whether these policies will actually affect climate outcomes is dubious). This is arguably by far the biggest risk that companies face.

Meaning that if the regulation comes into force, I recommend the following boilerplate disclosure for all companies: “We face the risk that some government agency will adopt a boneheaded policy that will dramatically raise our cost of doing business or eliminate the markets we service.”

This will also be a boon to lawyers. “Company X failed to disclose the risk associated with [insert climate scenario here] described in [poorly executed paper published in obscure journal].”

I could go on. But in Congressional testimony John Cochrane did a lot of the heavy lifting for me, so I direct you there.

And I ask: how will this information improve the allocation of capital? It is more likely that this will just add noise that impedes efficient capital allocation, rather than actionable information that improves it. The hive mind of investors is likely far more adept at evaluating the effects of the climate-economics-policy nexus than the managers of corporations.

I further note that this obligation’s burdens are greater for small companies than big ones. Meaning that it will likely lead to exit and consolidation, and greater concentration. Which other parts of this administration–notably Lina Khan’s FTC–think is a great evil. Ironic, that. Ironic, but not humorously so.

Moving right along, the trendy Gary has targeted the New Thing, Artificial Intelligence. In public statements Gensler has made the at least somewhat plausible argument that interactions between very similar AIs can produce destabilizing positive feedback mechanisms. But the SEC’s proposed AI regulation instead focuses on potential agency problems:

Today’s predictive data analytics models provide an increasing ability to make predictions about each of us as individuals. This raises possibilities that conflicts may arise to the extent that advisers or brokers are optimizing to place their interests ahead of their investors’ interests. When offering advice or recommendations, firms are obligated to eliminate or otherwise address any conflicts of interest and not put their own interests ahead of their investors’ interests. I believe that, if adopted, these rules would help protect investors from conflicts of interest — and require that, regardless of the technology used, firms meet their obligations not to place their own interests ahead of investors’ interests.”

The SEC remedy for this litany of horrors?

But under the guise of minimizing conflicts of interest, the SEC now proposes requiring advisers and broker-dealers to write new internal procedures and to log all uses of technologies relating to predictive data analytics for agency review. If left unchallenged, the new rules would hamper the American financial industry’s world-beating innovation.

The definition of what must be disclosed is comprehensive:

“an analytical, technological, or computational function, algorithm, model, correlation matrix, or similar method or process that optimizes for, predicts, guides, forecasts, or directs investment-related behaviors or outcomes in an investor interaction.” 

This would basically encompass EVERY analytical function performed by covered entities, including e.g., quant traders’ algorithms, portfolio optimizers, and on and on and on. Basically any use of statistical methods is implicated (note the reference to “correlation matrix”).

Perhaps the “investor interaction” language will limit this to principle-agent applications (as bad as that would be), but it is so broad that it is highly likely that the SEC will interpret it to cover, say, an HFT firms algorithms to predict and analyze order flows. That involves “an investor interaction.”

This all brings to mind previous regulatory initiatives to require disclosure of all trading algorithms–something that was mercifully killed.

And what will the SEC do with this information? This would represent a massive amount of highly technical information that the SEC would not have the capacity or expertise to analyze proactively, and information that would metastasize inexorably. Hell, even storing the information would be a challenge.

Again, like the climate reg, this seems all pain no gain. This disclosure would entail massive cost. And for what? To find an agency violation needle in a massive informational haystack? Agency violations (such as trading ahead) that could not be detected using existing methods?

But that’s not all!

Gensler also looks askance at exchange volume discounts. Why? Because NO FAIR:

“Currently, the playing field upon which broker-dealers compete is unlevel,” said SEC Chair Gary Gensler. “Through volume-based transaction pricing, mid-sized and smaller broker-dealers effectively pay higher fees than larger brokers to trade on most exchanges. We have heard from a number of market participants that volume-based transaction pricing along with related market practices raise concerns about competition in the markets. I am pleased to support this proposal because it will elicit important public feedback on how the Commission can best promote competition amongst equity market participants.”

Volume discounts are obviously pervasive throughout the economy in the US and indeed the world. So why should these be somehow so nefarious in stock trading as to require their elimination?

Let’s apply some economics–which alas is an alien concept to Gensler. There are two basic reasons for volume discounts.

One is that it is cheaper to service bigger customers. In which case volume discounts are efficient, and banning them would be unambiguously bad.

Another is that it is a form of price discrimination. For example, big intermediaries may find it easier/cheaper to shift business between exchanges than smaller intermediaries, in which case their demand for the services of a particular exchange would be more elastic than the demand of the smaller firms. Exchanges would then rationally charge lower prices to the more elastic demanders.

The welfare effects of this type of price discrimination are ambiguous, making the case for banning it–even if it can be established that the volume discounts are demand-elasticity-driven discrimination vs. cost-based discrimination–ambiguous as well.

With respect to “concerns about competition,” well, elasticity-based discrimination requires that inter-exchange competition not be perfect in the textbook sense. But if that is what is driving the volume discounts, outlawing them treats a symptom of market power rather than market power itself, and how “imperfectly competing” exchanges will price when they can’t price discriminate is very much an open question–and exactly why the welfare effects of price discrimination are ambiguous.

Gensler seems to be channeling discredited Robinson-Patman like logic that protected the high cost against competition from the low cost. That is anti-competitive, not pro-competitive.

These are only some of the monsters the Frankensteinian Gensler is assembling in his DC laboratory. I could go on, but you get the idea.

There is hope, however. Whereas Gensler’s CFTC actions were largely rooted directly in very specific statutory directives, his work as Dr. Frankenstein is based on extremely expansive interpretations of the SEC’s statutory authority dating back to the 1930s. Such expansive interpretations–not just by the SEC, but many other agencies–are currently being challenged in the courts, including cases pending before the Supreme Court.

It is possible therefore, and indeed to be fervently hoped, that the Supreme Court will hand down decisions that demote Gensler back to Igor implementing very specific Congressional mandates, and end his career as regulatory Frankenstein.

And the benefits of such decisions would extend beyond reining in the SEC, for as bad as it is that agency is probably not the worst offender–the EPA probably is, but the competition for this dubious honor is intense. The administrative state–the American Mandarinate, as I like to think about it–needs to be culled. And with extreme prejudice, and as soon as possible.

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  1. America suffers under an Axis of Weevils. So do all its satrapies, of course.

    Comment by dearieme — November 16, 2023 @ 7:31 am

  2. As consumers of a significant proportion of US energy I guess the likes of Alphabet, Microsoft, Amazon and Meta will be itemising every digit of their activities to comply with the SEC’s climate mandate. And the SEC will have to itemise its energy consumption when analysing and storing this information. And…

    I was born in the wrong body. I shoulda bin an American lawyer.

    Comment by philip — November 16, 2023 @ 11:19 am

  3. Such expansive interpretations–not just by the SEC, but many other agencies–are currently being challenged in the courts

    And the SEC is losing, too, at least on their expansive view of authority over crypto projects. A federal court rejected the notion that the Ripple XRP token is a security regardless of the circumstances where it is traded. Gensler’s policy of regulation by enforcement (refusing guidance and then initiating lawsuits) is purpose-designed to stymie the fledgling industry by making it impossible to judge risk. He promulgated SAB 121, which stabs a shiv into crypto custody services, while attempting to disguise it as an esoteric accounting rule, and that is getting blowback from Congress (

    Comment by M. Rad. — November 16, 2023 @ 8:40 pm

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